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Table 1 Survey results regarding HH-environment. Differences between baseline and follow-up data were assessed by means of Pearson’s Chi-Square test total cohort compared to nonsurgical and surgical departments (%)

From: Hand hygiene behavior in a tertiary university hospital: differences between surgical and nonsurgical departments

Question Yes No Don’t know no answer    p
Do you think there are enough HH-dispensers?        
Baseline 92.2 6.3 0.5 1.1    
Follow up 92.4 7.4 0.2 -    ns
Baseline (nonsurgical) 92.9 5.5 0.3 1.3    
Follow up (nonsurgical) 92.2 7.8 0.0 -    ns
Baseline (surgical) 91.6 6.9 0.6 0.8    
Follow up (surgical) 92.5 7.2 0.3 -    ns
Are there enough possibilities to clean your hands with water and soap?
Baseline 94.2 4.6 0.2 1.1    
Follow up 94.6 4.3 1.0 -    0.03
Baseline (nonsurgical) 92.6 5.5 0.5 1.3    
Follow up (nonsurgical) 93.4 4.8 1.8 -    ns
Baseline (surgical) 95.4 3.8 0.0 0.8    
Follow up (surgical) 95.3 4.1 0.6 -    ns
Are there enough HH-products available (hand creme)?
Baseline 68.4 28.7 1.9 1.1    
Follow up 71.3 26.6 2.1 -    ns
Baseline (nonsurgical) 67.5 29.8 1.3 1.3    
Follow up (nonsurgical) 75.4 24.0 0.6 -    ns
Baseline (surgical) 69.1 27.7 2.3 0.8    
Follow up (surgical) 69.2 28.0 2.8 -    ns
Is there an HH-representative in your department?
Baseline 95.7 0.6 2.6 1.2    
Follow up 96.7 0.6 2.7 -    ns
Baseline (nonsurgical) 96.3 1.3 1.1 1.3    
Follow up (nonsurgical) 99.4 0.0 0.6 -    ns
Baseline (surgical) 95.2 0.0 3.8 1.1    
Follow up (surgical) 95.3 0.9 3.8 -    0.05
How often HH-dispensers are empty? never every day once per week once per month don’t know No answer  
Baseline 48.8 2.9 14.9 20.6 11.8 1.1  
Follow up 39.0 4.5 19.4 22.1 15.1 - 0.001
Baseline (nonsurgical) 46.7 2.6 15.0 21.9 12.4 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 41.9 4.8 25.1 17.4 10.8 - 0.03
Baseline (surgical) 50.4 3.2 14.7 19.5 11.3 0.8  
Follow up (surgical) 37.4 4.4 16.4 24.5 17.3 - 0.003
  never sometimes mostly always not available No answer  
Are HH-dispensers near to the bed?
Baseline 6.9 9.9 18.9 50.5 12.5 1.2  
Follow up 2.3 8.2 22.1 58.1 9.3 - <0.001
Baseline (nonsurgical) 5.8 10.3 20.6 51.2 10.8 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 3.6 8.4 21.0 49.7 17.4 - ns
Baseline (surgical) 7.8 9.7 17.6 50.0 13.9 1.1  
Follow up (surgical) 1.6 8.2 22.6 62.6 5.0 - <0.001
Are HH-dispensers in the entrance area within the patient room?
Baseline 3.7 4.6 11.7 67.5 11.5 1.1  
Follow up 1.2 3.7 10.9 74.2 9.9 - 0.009
Baseline (nonsurgical) 3.7 3.2 8.4 74.4 9.0 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 0.6 3.0 7.8 72.5 16.2 - 0.038
Baseline (surgical) 3.8 5.7 14.3 62.0 13.4 0.8  
Follow up (surgical) 1.6 4.1 12.6 75.2 6.6 - 0.001
Are HH-dispensers anywhere else in the patient room?
Baseline 7.3 12.9 13.3 44.4 20.9 1.2  
Follow up 6.2 10.9 18.8 49.1 15.1 - 0.001
Baseline (nonsurgical) 6.9 12.4 12.4 47.2 19.8 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 3.6 9.0 17.4 48.5 21.6 - ns
Baseline (surgical) 7.6 13.2 14.1 42.2 21.8 1.1  
Follow up (surgical) 7.5 11.9 19.5 49.4 11.6 - 0.001
Are there HH-dispensers for employees (social room, fitting room)?
Baseline 3.0 7.1 15.1 69.7 3.9 1.2  
Follow up 2.9 8.0 17.7 68.0 3.3 - ns
Baseline (nonsurgical) 1.3 5.0 12.4 76.8 3.2 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 3.0 7.2 16.2 73.7 0.0 - 0.041
Baseline (surgical) 4.4 8.8 17.2 64.1 4.4 1.1  
Follow up (surgical) 2.8 8.5 18.6 65.1 5.0 - ns
Are there HH-dispensers in the consulting room?
Baseline 0.8 0.6 8.0 81.9 7.6 1.2  
Follow up 0.0 2.1 5.4 88.2 4.3 - <0.001
Baseline (nonsurgical) 0.5 0.3 7.4 86.8 3.7 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 0.0 0.6 6.0 86.2 7.2 - ns
Baseline (surgical) 1.1 0.8 8.4 77.9 10.7 1.1  
Follow up (surgical) 0.0 2.8 5.0 89.3 2.8 - <0.001
Are there HH-dispensers in public toilets?
Baseline 0.4 1.2 7.3 81.8 8.3 1.2  
Follow up 0.0 1.2 6.0 89.1 3.7 - 0.001
Baseline (nonsurgical) 0.8 0.8 8.2 85.2 3.7 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 0.0 0.0 4.2 94.0 1.8 - ns
Baseline (surgical) 0.0 1.5 6.5 79.0 12.0 1.1  
Follow up (surgical) 0.0 1.9 6.9 86.5 4.7 - 0.003
Are there HH-dispensers in staff lavatory?
Baseline 0.1 0.4 3.3 94.3 0.8 1.2  
Follow up 0.2 0.6 4.1 94.0 1.0 - ns
Baseline (nonsurgical) 0.3 0.0 3.7 94.2 0.5 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 0.0 0.6 3.0 96.4 0.0 - ns
Baseline (surgical) 0.0 0.6 2.9 94.3 1.1 1.1  
Follow up (surgical) 0.3 0.6 4.7 92.8 1.6 - ns
Are there portable HH-dispensers (i.e., ward round trolley)?
Baseline 6.5 5.7 9.8 57.9 18.8 1.2  
Follow up 1.6 2.9 10.5 69.7 15.3 - <0.001
Baseline (nonsurgical) 6.1 5.8 9.2 59.4 18.2 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 1.8 3.0 8.4 56.9 29.9 - 0.007
Baseline (surgical) 6.9 5.7 10.3 56.7 19.3 1.1  
Follow up (surgical) 1.6 2.8 11.6 76.4 7.5 - <0.001
Do you use pocket-sized bottles for HH?
Baseline 64.9 2.8 1.1 1.5 28.3 1.4  
Follow up 59.0 2.3 1.4 4.3 33.0 - 0.001
Baseline (nonsurgical) 65.2 3.2 1.3 1.3 27.7 1.3  
Follow up (nonsurgical) 55.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 38.9 - ns
Baseline (surgical) 64.7 2.5 0.8 1.7 28.8 1.5  
Follow up (surgical) 60.7 2.5 1.3 5.7 29.9 - 0.011