- Research article
- Open Access
Drug-related problems and their clinical interventions in a Ghanaian teaching hospital
© The Author(s). 2016
- Received: 24 October 2016
- Accepted: 10 November 2016
- Published: 30 November 2016
Errors occur frequently in the use of medicines. Pharmacists play a key role in error identification and make appropriate interventions as they work with other healthcare professionals. These error recovery roles of pharmacists contribute to patient safety. This study was to evaluate the clinical interventions made to drug-related problems at a tertiary care setting.
This involved a retrospective review of clinical intervention reports submitted by pharmacists working over the period January 2011 to December 2013.
The 24 pharmacists submitted 529 handwritten reports; of these, 448 reports had complete data. The most frequently reported drugs with error were warfarin (9.5%), potassium chloride (6.0%) and potassium citrate (5.5%). The pharmacists made 1019 clinical interventions and recommendations. The average intervention per report was 2.5 (S.D ± 0.67). The interventions and recommendations made were categorised as drug regimen change (76.1%), monitoring required (13.0%), communication (5.4%), counselling required (5.0%) and adverse drug reporting (0.6%). Majority (90.5%) of the recommendations and interventions made by pharmacists were accepted and implemented. Monitoring-required based interventions were significantly more likely to be accepted (130 vs 38; p <0.0001).
Pharmacists played a role in drug error recovery and prevented medication errors from reaching patients. These error mitigation efforts of pharmacists can serve as a priority in patient safety strategy.
- Medication errors
- Patient safety
- Clinical interventions
A substantial proportion of hospitalised patients experience medication-related harm that is preventable . Drug errors have been estimated to account for over a quarter of causes of adverse drug events . Strategies to prevent such problems are being developed. One such strategy is the structured review of patient medication by pharmacists to identify patients with medication errors that may lead to harm. The advantage is that the complete clinical status of each patient is taken into account when identifying problems . In a study, clinical pharmacists performed better than the decision support system in identifying drug–drug interactions clinical interventions . The authors realised that clinical pharmacists looked at individual administration intervals and drug sequence to determine the clinical relevance of the interactions.
The Harvard Medical Practice Study analysed error recovery, i.e. the circumstances under which errors were detected and corrected. The study acknowledged the important role pharmacists play in identifying and correcting drug errors from reaching patients.
The Institute of Medicine’s report includes recommendations for health systems to implement error reporting reviews . In the inpatient setting, clinicians have used various drug event reporting programs to better understand and prevent drug errors [6, 7]. The interception of medication errors is thus essential for improving patient safety. The aim of the study was therefore to evaluate the clinical interventions of hospital pharmacists.
The study was a retrospective review of reports, which had no names, nor personal information of patients. No consent was taken from patients since they could not be traced to any reports.
The study took place at Korle Bu Teaching hospital which is a 2000 bed tertiary teaching hospital located in the capital city of Ghana. At the time of the study, the hospital had about 80 pharmacists. The main pharmacy services provided in the hospital were dispensing, clinical, drug information, research and small scale manufacturing. There were about 30 pharmacists who actively undertake clinical duties across the various wards of the hospital.
To evaluate the clinical interventions of pharmacists working in the hospital, copies of reports for the period January 2011–December 2013 were made and relevant data extracted using a specially designed data collection sheet. Pharmacists had previously identified drug errors and manually reported the clinical interventions. The pharmacist interventions accepted and the actions taken were reported on the submitted manual reports. Pharmacists had discovered drug errors during their normal duties from review of patient medical records, laboratory reports, interactions with other health care professionals, patients, caregivers or family members.
The extracted clinical intervention data was entered into and analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 16 for Windows. Descriptive analysis was performed on all the data to obtain the frequency of clinical interventions, drug characteristics and pharmacist characteristics. Aggregate data were tabulated and summarized using frequency statistics such as count, range, mean and standard deviation. Descriptive analyses of all drug error types and related interventions were also tabulated. Pharmacist Clinical intervention data were compared between drug classifications, drug error types and whether pharmacist interventions were accepted or not using Chi square test dichotomous variables. Any p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Characteristics of pharmacists involved in reporting (N = 24)
Experience in practice (years)
Education & training
MSc in clinical pharmacy
MSc Clinical Pharmacy (student)
Drug error reports
Therapeutic category of drugs with intervention reports
Number of recommended interventions
Cardiovascular (n = 451[44.3%])
Calcium channel blockers
Angiotensin receptor blockers
Infections (n = 231[22.7%])
Nutrition (129 [12.7%])
Musculoskeletal (70 [6.9%])
Central Nervous System (51[5%])
Gastro-Intestinal (50 [4.9%])
Proton pump inhibitor
Endocrine (14 [1.4%])
Respiratory (11 [1.1%])
Others (12 [1.2%])
Drug error types and reasons
Prescribing (n = 721)
Wrong dose prescribed
Wrong drug prescribed
Duplication of therapy
Failure to stop order
Omitted lab test
Dispensing/implementing (n = 20)
Wrong drug dispensed
Administering/patient receiving (n = 66)
Unavailability of drug
Wrong dose administered
Failure to discontinue
Wrong drug administered
Wrong dosage form
Monitoring (n = 212)
Laboratory test omitted
Blood glucose not monitored
Side effects not monitored
Medicine-disease interactions not monitored
Culture and sensitivity omitted
BP not checked
Drugs most frequently occurring in intervention reports and their potential risk
Number in reports, n (%)
Examples of potential risk
Outcome of intervention
Increased hospital cost
Types of pharmacist clinical interventions and degree of acceptance
Number of reports
Yes, n (%)
No, n (%)
Drug regimen change (n=775[76.1%])
Write in medical notes
Acted on by pharmacist
Prescribe/procure for patient
Monitoring required (n = 132 [13%])
Write in patient medical notes
Write formal note
Counselling required (n = 52 [5.1%])
Acted on by pharmacist
Prescribe/procure for patient
Communication (n = 54[5.3%])
Write in medical notes
Prescribe/procure for patient
Adverse drug reporting (n = 6 [0.6%])
Write formal note
This part of the study evaluated the clinical intervention reports submitted by pharmacists working in a tertiary hospital. The pharmacists identified drug related problems in the management of patients and made interventions to prevent these errors from reaching patients. Twenty-four pharmacists made 1019 clinical interventions in 448 handwritten reports. Majority of the interventions related to drug therapy changes. Though this study evaluated handwritten reports, it is comparable to evaluations done on electronic incident reports [8, 9].
The categories of drugs most often associated with drug error reports were similar to those reported from previous studies and included cardiovascular agents [10, 11], anti-infectives [11, 12], and central nervous system agents [10, 13], suggesting that future strategies for reducing drug errors could target these agents. This study also found challenges with the use of nutritional supplements. Most of the challenges with nutritional supplements had to do with untreated anaemia, which physicians had overlooked. Iron deficiency anaemia is a serious nutritional problem in developing countries given its impact on increased mortality or serious morbidity in patients .
The frequently reported drug was warfarin as found in other studies . The use of warfarin presents substantial safety concerns for patients. Adverse events associated with warfarin therapy are common . This will require prevention strategies targeted at the prescribing and monitoring stages of warfarin management.
Though this study concentrated on pharmacists identifying inpatient drug errors as in other studies, results are comparable with studies conducted in outpatients [11, 17–20]. The drug errors assessed in this study were reports from only pharmacists although physicians [11, 21], nurses [22, 23] and others [24, 25] had reported drug errors in other studies.
The most frequently reported drug errors found in our study were drug regimen change and originated from drug prescribing. This finding is consistent with findings from other studies conducted in clinical centres , tertiary , hospital inpatient  and ambulatory care settings . Inappropriate prescribing predicts the risk of adverse drug events . The most commonly reported prescribing drug error was untreated indication. This was followed by prescribing wrong dose as seen in other studies [11, 30]. Children are particularly at risk of wrong dose errors .
The top two most frequently reported drug type associated with prescribing, dispensing and administration errors were cardiovascular and anti-infective agents. The most commonly reported dispensing error was dispensing wrong drug. Previous studies have reported dispensing wrong drugs in all types of inpatient settings [25, 32–35]. Omission due to drug unavailability was also a common error identified. Drug unavailability is common and poses a major challenge to healthcare systems in transitional and developing countries [36, 37]. In addition to drug omissions, administering wrong drug followed by duplication were common reported administration errors. The most commonly reported monitoring error was omitting relevant laboratory test. Monitoring errors had been previously reported .
More than 90% of interventions and recommendations by pharmacists were accepted and implemented. Over 70% of the interventions involved drug regimen change. Studies have reported prescribing errors as a major contributor to patient harm in hospitals [10, 26, 28, 29, 38]. Most (76%) of the interventions were communicated verbally. This would require an operational collaborative working relationship between pharmacists and other healthcare professionals to enhance patient care . Previous studies reported that pharmacists in a collaborative team in hospitals helped reduce adverse drug events by 30–86% [19, 40–42]. Pharmacists’ close proximity with physicians provides opportunity for timely verbal communications on error interceptions. Some of the potential risk prevented by pharmacists included bleeding, anaemia, nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalance, severe diarrhoea etc.
Moreover, other interventions by pharmacists in this study related to patient counselling. It has been reported that patient counselling prevents adverse drug events during and after hospitalisation .
The study had some limitations. The study evaluated voluntary incident reports. Voluntary reports could be underreported and did not provide the actual frequency of the total denominator of errors that were detected and ameliorated. Secondly, reports did not contain information on whether errors reached patients and the effects of any harm. Moreover, the study could not assess the outcomes of the interventions performed by pharmacist.
Hospital pharmacists identified a lot of drug use challenges and subsequently prevented errors from reaching patients. Majority of pharmacist interventions and recommendations to prevent or ameliorate drug errors were accepted and implemented.
The study did not receive any external funding.
Availability of data and materials
Please contact author for data requests.
FA was involved in conceptualization, research design, data collection, data analysis, statistical analysis and drafting of manuscripts. FAN was involved in data analysis and reviewing and editing of manuscripts. BPA was involved in study conceptualization, and editing of final manuscript. All authors read, reviewed and edited the final manuscript and approved the final manuscript in its current state.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The work was reviewed by the Internal Review Board of the Public Health Unit of Korle Bu Teaching Hospital and the Ethical and Protocol Review Committee of the University of Ghana Medical School (MS-Et/M.3-P3.1/2013-2014).
It was a retrospective review and did not require informed consent. However, codes were used to refer to patients such that the identity of participants were not known.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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